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At this level, the outcomes of battles are usually determined by a simple computation. At the strategic level , the scenario is an entire war.
The player addresses higher-level concerns such as economics, research, and diplomacy. The time span of the game is in the order of months or years.
No wargame can be perfectly realistic. A wargame's design must make trade-offs between realism, simplicity, and fun; and function with the constraints of its medium.
Military wargames need to be highly realistic, because their purpose is to prepare officers for real warfare.
Recreational wargames only need to be as realistic as it pleases the players; the emphasis is on verisimilitude rather than practical realism.
Fantasy wargames arguably stretch the definition of wargaming by representing fictional or anachronistic armaments, but they may still be called wargames if they resemble real warfare closely enough.
Whereas the rules of chess are relatively simple, wargames tend to have very sophisticated rules. Generally speaking, the more realistic a wargame seeks to be, the more complicated its rules must be.
Even experienced wargamers usually play with their rulebook on hand, because the rules for most wargames are too complex to fully memorize.
For many people, the complexity also makes wargames difficult to enjoy, but some players enjoy high realism, so finding a balance between realism and simplicity is tricky when it comes to recreational wargames.
One way to solve the problem of complexity is to use an umpire who has the discretion to arbitrate events, using whatever tools and knowledge he deems fit.
This solution is popular with military instructors because it allows them to apply their own expertise when they use wargames to instruct students. The drawback of this approach is that the umpire must be very knowledgeable in warfare and impartial, else he may issue unrealistic or unfair rulings.
Another way to address complexity is to use a computer to automate some or all of the routine procedures. Video games can be both sophisticated and easy to learn, which is why computer wargames are more popular than tabletop wargames.
Every wargame must have a sense of scale , so that it may realistically simulate how topography, distance, and time affect warfare.
Military wargames typically aim to model time and space as realistically as is feasible. Recreational wargame designers, by contrast, tend to use abstract scaling techniques to make their wargames easier to learn and play.
Tabletop miniature wargames , for instance, cannot realistically model the range of modern firearms, because miniature wargaming models are typically built to a scale ratio between and If model soldiers could shoot each other from opposite ends of the table, without the need to maneuver, the game would not be much fun.
The miniature wargame Bolt Action solves this problem by reducing a rifle's range to 24 inches, a sub-machine gun's range to 12 inches, and a pistol's range to 6 inches.
Even if these ranges are not realistic, the proportions make intuitive sense and thus keep the game somewhat credible, all the while compressing the battle to fit the confines of the table.
Also, the ranges are multiples of 6, which makes them easier to remember. In real warfare, commanders have incomplete information about their enemy and the battlespace.
A wargame that conceals some information from the player is called a closed game. An open wargame has no secret information. A closed wargame can simulate the espionage and reconnaissance aspects of war.
Military wargames often use umpires to manage secret information. The players may be forced to sit in separate rooms, and communicate their orders with the umpire in the game room, who in turn reports back only the information he judges the players should know.
Some recreational wargames use an umpire too, often referring to them as "the GameMaster" e. Warhammer 40, Rogue Trader.
The fog of war is easy to simulate in a computer wargame, as a virtual environment is free of the constraints of a physical tabletop game.
Miniature wargaming is a form of wargaming where units on the battlefield are represented by miniature models, as opposed to abstract pieces such as wooden blocks or plastic counters.
Likewise, the battlefield itself is represented by model terrain, as opposed to a flat board or map. Miniature wargaming tends to be more expensive and time-consuming than other forms of wargaming.
Furthermore, most manufacturers do not sell ready-to-play models, they sell boxes of model parts, which the players are expected to assemble and paint themselves.
This requires skill, time, and money, but many players actually prefer it this way because it gives them a way to show off their artistic skill.
Miniature wargaming is as much about artistry as it is about play. A board wargame is played on a board that has a more-or-less fixed layout and is supplied by the game's manufacturer.
This is in contrast to customizable playing fields made with modular components, such as in miniature wargaming. In block wargaming , the Fog of War is built into the game by representing units with upright wooden blocks that are marked on only one face, which is oriented towards the player who owns the block.
The opponent cannot see the markings from his position. Because of their nature, cards are well suited for abstract games, as opposed to the simulation aspects of wargames.
Traditional card games are not considered wargames even when nominally about the same subject such as the game War.
An early card wargame was Nuclear War , a 'tongue-in-cheek game of the end of the world', first published in and still published today by Flying Buffalo.
It does not simulate how any actual nuclear exchange would happen, but it is still structured unlike most card games because of the way it deals with its subject.
The first was fairly popular in wargaming circles, and is a light system of naval combat, though again not depicting any 'real' situation players may operate ships from opposing navies side-by-side.
Armor Supremacy was not as successful, but is a look at the constant design and development of new types of tanks during World War II. The most successful card wargame as a card game and as a wargame would almost certainly be Up Front , a card game about tactical combat in World War II published by Avalon Hill in The abstractness is harnessed in the game by having the deck produce random terrain, and chances to fire, and the like, simulating uncertainty as to the local conditions nature of the terrain, etc.
Dan Verssen Games is a specialist designer and publisher of card games for several genres, including air combat and World War II and Modern land combat.
Despite Debord's use of the title, however, his game bears no real resemblance to the Prussian military tradition of Kriegsspiel.
A chess variant called Kriegspiel was developed, which based the concept that Kriegsspiel players' lack the knowledge of the opponent's position, and applied it to chess.
Sign In Don't have an account? For the chess variant, see Kriegspiel chess. An interactive media reboot of WarGames was announced by MGM in , with Interlude serving as its co-production company.
The project was described as an "audience-driven story experience", with anticipated launch in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the film. For the film, see War Game film. For other uses, see War Game disambiguation.
Theatrical release poster. Lawrence Lasker Walter F. United Artists Sherwood Productions. Stephen Falken a.
Lightman Susan Davis as Mrs. Jerry Lawson Michael Madsen as Lt. Steve Phelps Alan Blumenfeld as Mr. Main article: WarGames interactive media. Archived from the original on July 8, University Press of Kentucky.
Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Computer Gaming World. Retrieved July 6, WarGames ". Leonard Maltin's Worst Ratings.
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Mit Kriegsspiel bezeichnet man das. In den 80er Jahren waren Computer — vor allem solche in Datennetzen wie dem Internet. Kriegsspiel — Wargame. Dabney Coleman.
Listen mit WarGames - Kriegsspiele. Jonathan Beck USA. Irving Metzman. WOPR erkennt, dass hierbei keiner gewinnen kann, und probiert daraufhin alle Atomkriegsstrategien durch, von denen ebenfalls keine siegreich wäre.
Von John Badham. Kriegsspiele sollen den Character des Gefechts möglichst präzise darstellen, damit Offiziere unterschiedliche Aspekte der Truppenführung üben, studieren, begreifen, und weiter entwickeln können.
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The umpire then moved the pieces across the game map according to how he judged the virtual troops would interpret and carry out their orders.
The umpire also managed secret information so as to simulate the fog of war. The umpire placed pieces on the map only for those units which he judged both sides could see.
He kept a mental track of where the hidden units were, and only placed their pieces on the map when he judged they came into view of the enemy.
Earlier wargames had fixed victory conditions, such as occupying the enemy's fortress. By contrast, Reisswitz's wargame was open-ended. The umpire decided what the victory conditions were, if there were to be any, and they typically resembled the goals an actual army in battle might aim for.
The emphasis was on the experience of decision-making and strategic thinking, not on competition. As Reisswitz himself wrote: "The winning or losing, in the sense of a card or board game, does not come into it.
In the English-speaking world, Reisswitz's wargame and its variants are called Kriegsspiel , which is the German word for "wargame".
The Prussian king and the General Staff officially endorsed Reisswitz's wargame, and by the end of the decade every German regiment had bought materials for it.
Over the years, the Prussians developed new variations of Reisswitz's system to incorporate new technologies and doctrine.
Prussian wargaming attracted little attention outside Prussia until , when Prussia defeated France in the Franco-Prussian War.
Many credited Prussia's victory to its wargaming tradition. Livermore published The American Kriegsspiel in , both heavily inspired by Prussian wargames.
The English writer H. Wells developed codified rules for playing with toy soldiers, which he published in a book titled Little Wars This is widely remembered as the first rulebook for miniature wargaming for terrestrial armies, at least.
Little Wars had very simple rules to make it fun and accessible to anyone. Little Wars did not use dice or computation to resolve fights.
For artillery attacks, players used spring-loaded toy cannons which fired little wooden cylinders to physically knock over enemy models. As for infantry and cavalry, they could only engage in hand-to-hand combat even if the figurines exhibited firearms.
When two infantry units fought in close quarters, the units would suffer non-random losses determined by their relative sizes. Little Wars was designed for a large field of play, such as a lawn or the floor of a large room.
An infantryman could move up to one foot per turn, and a cavalryman could move up to two feet per turn.
To measure these distances, players used a two-foot long piece of string. Wells was also the first wargamer to use scale models of buildings, trees, and other terrain features to create a three-dimensional battlefield.
Wells' rulebook failed to invigorate the miniature wargaming community. A possible reason was the two World Wars, which de-glamorized war and caused shortages of tin and lead that made model soldiers expensive.
Miniature wargaming was seen as a niche within the larger hobby of making and collecting model soldiers. In , a California man named Jack Scruby began making inexpensive miniature models for miniature wargames out of type metal.
Scruby's major contribution to the miniature wargaming hobby was to network players across America and the UK. At the time, the miniature wargaming community was minuscule, and players struggled to find each other.
In , Scruby organized the first miniature wargaming convention in America, which was attended by just fourteen people.
From to , he self-published the world's first wargaming magazine, titled The War Game Digest , through which wargamers could publish their rules and share game reports.
It had less than two hundred subscribers, but it did establish a community that kept growing. Around the same time in the United Kingdom, Donald Featherstone began writing an influential series of books on wargaming, which represented the first mainstream published contribution to wargaming since Little Wars.
Such was the popularity of such titles that other authors were able to have published wargaming titles. This output of published wargaming titles from British authors coupled with the emergence at the same time of several manufacturers providing suitable wargame miniatures e.
In , Tony Bath published what was the first ruleset for a miniature wargame set in the medieval period. These rules were a major inspiration for Gary Gygax's Chainmail From to , Games Workshop produced what was the first miniature wargame designed to be used with proprietary models: Warhammer Fantasy.
Earlier miniature wargames were designed to be played using generic models that could be bought from any manufacturer, but Warhammer Fantasy's setting featured original characters with distinctive visual designs, and their models were produced exclusively by Games Workshop.
The first successful commercial board wargame was Tactics by an American named Charles S. What distinguished this wargame from previous ones is that it was mass-produced and all the necessary materials for play were bundled together in a box.
Previous wargames were often just a rulebook and required players to obtain the other materials themselves.
Roberts later founded the Avalon Hill Game Company , the first firm that specialized in commercial wargames. In , Avalon Hill released Gettysburg , which was a retooling of the rules of Tactics , and was based on the historical Battle of Gettysburg.
Gettysburg became the most widely-played wargame yet. Board wargames were more popular than miniature wargames. One reason was that assembling a playset for miniature wargaming was expensive, time-consuming, and require artisanal skill.
Another reason was that board wargames could be played by correspondence. Board wargames were usually grid-based, or else designed in some way that moves could be explained in writing in simple terms.
This was not possible with the free-form nature of miniature wargames. While a comprehensive list will show the variety of titles, the following games are notable for the reasons indicated:.
See also List of miniature wargames. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Wargaming. Strategy game that realistically simulates war.
For the website, see Wargamer website. For other uses, see Wargaming disambiguation and War game disambiguation.
Main articles: Military wargaming and Recreational wargaming. Main article: Miniature wargaming. Main article: Board wargame. Main article: Block wargame.
Main article: Wargame video games. Main article: computer-assisted gaming. Main article: Play-by-mail game. The playing field and pieces from Hellwig's wargame.
Sign In Don't have an account? For the chess variant, see Kriegspiel chess. Contents [ show ]. Categories :. Cancel Save. Lightman gets WOPR to run a nuclear war simulation, believing it to be a computer game.
The computer, now tied into the nuclear weapons control system and unable to tell the difference between simulation and reality, attempts to start World War III.
The film was nominated for three Academy Awards. During a surprise drill of a nuclear attack, many United States Air Force Strategic Missile Wing controllers prove unwilling to turn the key required to launch a missile strike.
Such refusals convince John McKittrick and other systems engineers at NORAD that missile launch control centers must be automated, without human intervention.
David Lightman, a bright but unmotivated Seattle high school student and hacker, uses his IMSAI computer to break into the school district's computer system and change his grades.