Zusammengefaßt können für die Seeminen folgende Eigenschaften genannt werden: Sie sind relativ unabhängig von der Geographie des Einsatzgebietes;. Seeminen seien die "bevorzugte Waffe einer schwachen Seemacht gegen eine starke Seemacht", definiert die "Encyclopaedia Britannica" jene. Besteht jede Seemine oder Seeminenattrappe aus diesem Gemisch, entsprechend der Erfindung, ist die Lagerung und der Trans port von Minen leichter. Nur.
Seemine Naturschutzbehörden nicht informiert
Seeminen sind Sprengladungen, die im Wasser gegen Schiffe und U-Boote eingesetzt werden. Der Oberbegriff für das im Minenkrieg verwendete Material ist „Sperrwaffen“. Seeminen sind Sprengladungen, die im Wasser gegen Schiffe und U-Boote eingesetzt werden. Der Oberbegriff für das im Minenkrieg verwendete Material ist. Ankertauminen sind eine Untergruppe von Seeminen. Sie wirken mit einer durch ihr Ankertau unter der Wasseroberfläche gehaltenen Sprengladung gegen. Wenn das passierende Schiff direkt oder indirekt auf die Seemine einwirkt, wird diese ausgelöst. Alle Seeminen, die im Skagerrak gelegt wurden, waren aufgrund. Zusammengefaßt können für die Seeminen folgende Eigenschaften genannt werden: Sie sind relativ unabhängig von der Geographie des Einsatzgebietes;. Die deutsche Seemine aus dem Zweiten Weltkrieg, die in der Nordsee nahe dem Windpark Godewind 2 entdeckt wurde, ist am. Eine in der Nordsee treibende Seemine hat die Sicherheitsbehörden zwei Tage lang auf Trab gehalten. Der aus dem Zweiten Weltkrieg.
Seeminen sind Sprengladungen, die im Wasser gegen Schiffe und U-Boote eingesetzt werden. Der Oberbegriff für das im Minenkrieg verwendete Material ist. Wenn das passierende Schiff direkt oder indirekt auf die Seemine einwirkt, wird diese ausgelöst. Alle Seeminen, die im Skagerrak gelegt wurden, waren aufgrund. Zusammengefaßt können für die Seeminen folgende Eigenschaften genannt werden: Sie sind relativ unabhängig von der Geographie des Einsatzgebietes;. Der Munitionsmüll stamme Arri-Kino nur aus den Kriegen, sondern auch aus später offiziell genehmigten Entsorgungen nicht benutzter Munitionsagt Ludwichowsi. Von Gabriele Schulte. Bei der Minenjagd werden einzelne Kostenlos Film Stream mit Hilfe von hoch auflösenden Sonargeräten geortet. Anfänglich kamen zwei verschiedene Systeme der automatischen Maburaho zum Einsatz. Durch die nachlassende Spannung auf der Tiefenleine wird das Ankertau festgeklemmt. Kategorie : Seeminentyp. Normalerweise befanden sich die Minen 3—6 m unter der Meeresoberfläche. Die Ankertauminen Seemine von schweren Eisenankern auf dem Meeresgrund festgehalten. Wegen des starken Windes entschloss sich das zu Hilfe gerufene Havariekommandodie Seemine nicht im Wasser zu sprengen. Kontaktzünder basieren auf chemischen, mechanischen oder elektrischen Prinzipien. Minen mit Druckzünder Stream Justice League nur mit Sperrbrechern geräumt werden, die Filme Melissa Mccarthy besonders geschützte Schiffe die Minen überlaufen und Seemine Zündung bringen. Bereits im Ersten Weltkrieg wurden Grundminen entwickelt, die auf dem Meeresboden liegen. Steht die Mine zu tief, können Schiffe unbeschadet darüber hinwegfahren. Minen Love And Other Drugs von Schiffen, U-Booten und Flugzeugen verbracht werden. Neben der Voreinstellung der Ankertaulänge hat sich in der Praxis das Voreilgewicht oder Voreilanker bewährt.
Seemine Inhaltsverzeichnis VideoHot Fuzz Seemine 2009
Seemine - Im Schlepptau zur SandbankLange sei das Thema von der Politik ignoriert worden. Dieses System wurde von der Kaiserlichen Marine bis eingesetzt.
The other three versions are intended for training or target acquisition purposes. The ability to change the warhead size allows Stonefish to be deployed against small targets in shallow coastal waters or against large targets in deep ocean.
The physical measurements of a Stonefish mine are such that it can easily be loaded into the torpedo tubes of submarines, then deployed using a small charge of compressed air to expel it.
Alternatively, if an optional air-drop kit is fitted it can also be deployed by maritime patrol aircraft such as the P-3 Orion connected to the aircraft via suspension lugs and an arming lanyard its descent to the ocean surface slowed by a parachute retard pack.
The computerised exploder in a Stonefish mine is microprocessor -based. It features acoustic, magnetic and water pressure displacement target detection sensors.
The DSP circuitry includes such features as the ability to set thresholds regarding the signal strength and adjust sterilisation delay times how long before the mine renders itself inoperative.
A portable electronic presetting kit can be used to reprogram the mine e. Its shelf life is 20 years, and it has an operational lifetime of days after being deployed on the seabed.
Stonefish incorporates arming delays, ship counting and self-sterilisation features which can be configured by the user.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Type of Mine. Naval Technology. Sometimes floating mines break from their moorings and become drifting mines; modern mines are designed to deactivate in this event.
After several years at sea, the deactivation mechanism might not function as intended and the mines may remain live.
Admiral Jellicoe 's British fleet did not pursue and destroy the outnumbered German High Seas Fleet when it turned away at the Battle of Jutland because he thought they were leading him into a trap: he believed it possible that the Germans were either leaving floating mines in their wake, or were drawing him towards submarines, although neither of these was the case.
The drifting mines were much harder to remove than tethered mines after the war, and they caused about the same damage to both sides.
Churchill promoted " Operation Royal Marine " in and again in where floating mines were put into the Rhine in France to float down the river, becoming active after a time calculated to be long enough to reach German territory.
Frequently used in combination with coastal artillery and hydrophones, controlled mines or command detonation mines can be in place in peacetime, which is a huge advantage in blocking important shipping routes.
The mines can usually be turned into "normal" mines with a switch which prevents the enemy from simply capturing the controlling station and deactivating the mines , detonated on a signal or be allowed to detonate on their own.
The earliest ones were developed around by Robert Fulton. The first remotely controlled mines were moored mines used in the American Civil War, detonated electrically from shore.
They were considered superior to contact mines because they did not put friendly shipping at risk. These mines are triggered by the influence of a ship or submarine, rather than direct contact.
Such mines incorporate electronic sensors designed to detect the presence of a vessel and detonate when it comes within the blast range of the warhead.
The fuses on such mines may incorporate one or more of the following sensors: magnetic , passive acoustic or water pressure displacement caused by the proximity of a vessel.
The sophistication of influence mine fuses has increased considerably over the years as first transistors and then microprocessors have been incorporated into designs.
Simple magnetic sensors have been superseded by total-field magnetometers. Whereas early magnetic mine fuses would respond only to changes in a single component of a target vessel's magnetic field, a total field magnetometer responds to changes in the magnitude of the total background field thus enabling it to better detect even degaussed ships.
Similarly, the original broadband hydrophones of s acoustic mines which operate on the integrated volume of all frequencies have been replaced by narrow-band sensors which are much more sensitive and selective.
Mines can now be programmed to listen for highly specific acoustic signatures e. The sophistication of modern electronic mine fuzes incorporating these digital signal processing capabilities makes it much more difficult to detonate the mine with electronic countermeasures because several sensors working together e.
Modern influence mines such as the BAE Stonefish are computerised , with all the programmability this implies, such as the ability to quickly load new acoustic signatures into fuses, or program them to detect a single, highly distinctive target signature.
In this way, a mine with a passive acoustic fuze can be programmed to ignore all friendly vessels and small enemy vessels, only detonating when a very large enemy target passes over it.
Alternatively, the mine can be programmed specifically to ignore all surface vessels regardless of size and exclusively target submarines. Even as far back as WWII it was possible to incorporate a "ship counter" function in mine fuzes.
This might set the mine to ignore the first two ships passing over it which could be minesweepers deliberately trying to trigger mines but detonate when the third ship passes overhead, which could be a high-value target such as an aircraft carrier or oil tanker.
Even though modern mines are generally powered by a long life lithium battery , it is important to conserve power because they may need to remain active for months or even years.
For this reason, most influence mines are designed to remain in a semi-dormant state until an unpowered e. It is possible to program computerised mines to delay activation for days or weeks after being laid.
Similarly, they can be programmed to self-destruct or render themselves safe after a preset period of time. Generally, the more sophisticated the mine design, the more likely it is to have some form of anti-handling device to hinder clearance by divers or remotely piloted submersibles.
The moored mine is the backbone of modern mine systems. They are deployed where water is too deep for bottom mines. They can use several kinds of instruments to detect an enemy, usually a combination of acoustic, magnetic and pressure sensors, or more sophisticated optical shadows or electro potential sensors.
These cost many times more than contact mines. Moored mines are effective against most kinds of ships. As they are cheaper than other anti-ship weapons they can be deployed in large numbers, making them useful area denial or "channelizing" weapons.
Moored mines usually have lifetimes of more than 10 years, and some almost unlimited. Bottom mines sometimes called ground mines are used when the water is no more than 60 meters feet deep or when mining for submarines down to around meters feet.
They are much harder to detect and sweep, and can carry a much larger warhead than a moored mine. Bottom mines commonly utilize multiple types of sensors, which are less sensitive to sweeping.
The bouquet mine is a single anchor attached to several floating mines. It is designed so that when one mine is swept or detonated, another takes its place.
It is a very sensitive construction and lacks reliability. When the wire of a mine sweep hits the anchor wire of the mine, it drags the anchor wire along with it, pulling the mine down into contact with the sweeping wire.
That detonates the mine and cuts the sweeping wire. They are very cheap and usually used in combination with other mines in a minefield to make sweeping more difficult.
The mine is hydrostatically controlled to maintain a pre-set depth below the water's surface independently of the rise and fall of the tide.
The ascending mine is a floating distance mine that may cut its mooring or in some other way float higher when it detects a target.
It lets a single floating mine cover a much larger depth range. These are mines containing a moving weapon as a warhead, either a torpedo or a rocket.
Rocket mine : a Russian invention, the rocket mine is a bottom distance mine that fires a homing high-speed rocket not torpedo upwards towards the target.
It is intended to allow a bottom mine to attack surface ships as well as submarines from a greater depth. One type is the Te-1 rocket propelled mine.
Torpedo mine : the torpedo mine is a self-propelled variety, able to lie in wait for a target and then pursue it e.
Generally, torpedo mines incorporate computerised acoustic and magnetic fuzes. Mark 24 "mine", code-named Fido , was actually an ASW homing torpedo.
The mine designation was disinformation to conceal its function. The mine is propelled to its intended position by propulsion equipment such as a torpedo.
After reaching its destination, it sinks to the seabed and operates like a standard mine. It differs from the homing mine in that its mobile stage is before it lies in wait, rather than as part of the attacking phase.
One such design is the Mk 67 submarine launched mobile mine  which is based on a Mark 37 torpedo are capable of travelling as far as 10 miles through or into a channel, harbor, shallow water area and other zones which would normally be inaccessible to craft laying the device.
After reaching the target area they sink to the sea bed and act like conventionally laid influence mines. During the Cold War a test was conducted with naval mine fitted with tactical nuclear warheads for the "Baker" shot of Operation Crossroads.
This weapon was experimental and never went into production. This comprises two moored, floating contact mines which are tethered together by a length of steel cable or chain.
When the target ship hits the steel cable, the mines on either side are drawn down the side of the ship's hull, exploding on contact. In this manner it is almost impossible for target ships to pass safely between two individually moored mines.
Daisy-chained mines are a very simple concept which was used during World War II. Plastic drums filled with sand or concrete are periodically rolled off the side of ships as real mines are laid in large mine-fields.
These inexpensive false targets designed to be of a similar shape and size as genuine mines are intended to slow down the process of mine clearance: a mine-hunter is forced to investigate each suspicious sonar contact on the sea bed, whether it is real or not.
Often a maker of naval mines will provide both training and dummy versions of their mines. Historically several methods were used to lay mines.
In WWII, aircraft came into favour for mine laying with one of the largest examples being the mining of the Japanese sea routes in Operation Starvation.
Laying a minefield is a relatively fast process with specialized ships, which is today the most common method. These minelayers can carry several thousand mines [ citation needed ] and manoeuvre with high precision.
The mines are dropped at predefined intervals into the water behind the ship. Each mine is recorded for later clearing, but it is not unusual for these records to be lost together with the ships.
Therefore, many countries demand that all mining operations be planned on land and records kept so that the mines can later be recovered more easily.
In some cases, mines are automatically activated upon contact with the water. In others, a safety lanyard is pulled one end attached to the rail of a ship, aircraft or torpedo tube which starts an automatic timer countdown before the arming process is complete.
Typically, the automatic safety-arming process takes some minutes to complete. This allows the people laying the mines sufficient time to move out of its activation and blast zones.
In the s, Germany had experimented with the laying of mines by aircraft. It became a crucial element in their overall mining strategy. Aircraft had the advantage of speed, and they would never get caught in their own minefields.
From April to June , the Luftwaffe laid 1, mines in British waters. Soviet ports were mined, as was the Arctic convoy route to Murmansk. A very large chemical mine was designed to sink through ice with the aid of a melting compound.
In September , the UK announced the placement of extensive defensive minefields in waters surrounding the Home Islands. Offensive aerial mining operations began in April when 38 mines were laid at each of these locations: the Elbe River , the port of Lübeck and the German naval base at Kiel.
In the next 20 months, mines delivered by aircraft sank or damaged Axis ships with the loss of 94 aircraft.
By comparison, direct aerial attacks on Axis shipping had sunk or damaged vessels at a cost of aircraft lost. The advantage of aerial mining became clear, and the UK prepared for it.
Ellis A. First, aerial mines would have to be developed further and manufactured in large numbers. Second, laying the mines would require a sizable air group.
The US Navy lacked suitable aircraft. Johnson set about convincing General Curtis LeMay of the efficacy of heavy bombers laying aerial mines.
Both British and American mines were used. Japanese merchant shipping suffered tremendous losses, while Japanese mine sweeping forces were spread too thin attending to far-flung ports and extensive coastlines.
Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid , who directed nearly all RAAF mining operations in CBI, heartily endorsed aerial mining, writing in July that "aerial mining operations were of the order of times as destructive to the enemy as an equal number of bombing missions against land targets.
A single B dropped three mines into Haiphong harbor in October One of those mines sank a Japanese freighter. Another B dropped three more mines into the harbor in November, and a second freighter was sunk by a mine.
The threat of the remaining mines prevented a convoy of ten ships from entering Haiphong; and six of those ships were sunk by attacks before they reached a safe harbor.
The Japanese closed Haiphong to all steel-hulled ships for the remainder of the war after another small ship was sunk by one of the remaining mines, although they may not have realized no more than three mines remained.
Using Grumman TBF Avenger torpedo bombers, the US Navy mounted a direct aerial mining attack on enemy shipping in Palau on 30 March in concert with simultaneous conventional bombing and strafing attacks.
The dropping of 78 mines deterred 32 Japanese ships from escaping Koror harbor; and 23 of those immobilized ships were sunk in a subsequent bombing raid.
Japanese mine sweeping was unsuccessful; and the Japanese abandoned Palau as a base  when their first ship attempting to traverse the swept channel was damaged by a mine detonation.
Prince Fumimaro Konoe said after the war that the aerial mining by Bs had been "equally as effective as the B attacks on Japanese industry at the closing stages of the war when all food supplies and critical material were prevented from reaching the Japanese home islands.
Survey analysts projected that this would have starved Japan, forcing an earlier end to the war. Johnson looked at the Japan inner zone shipping results, comparing the total economic cost of submarine-delivered mines versus air-dropped mines and found that, though 1 in 12 submarine mines connected with the enemy as opposed to 1 in 21 for aircraft mines, the aerial mining operation was about ten times less expensive per enemy ton sunk.
Between , and 1,, naval mines of all types were laid in WWII. Advancing military forces worked to clear mines from newly-taken areas, but extensive minefields remained in place after the war.
Air-dropped mines had an additional problem for mine sweeping operations: they were not meticulously charted. In Japan, much of the B mine-laying work had been performed at high altitude, with the drifting on the wind of mines carried by parachute adding a randomizing factor to their placement.
Generalized danger areas were identified, with only the quantity of mines given in detail. Mines used in Operation Starvation were supposed to be self-sterilizing, but the circuit did not always work.
Clearing the mines from Japanese waters took so many years that the task was eventually given to the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force.
For the purpose of clearing all types of naval mines, the Royal Navy employed German crews and minesweepers from June to January ,  organised in the German Mine Sweeping Administration GMSA , which consisted of 27, members of the former Kriegsmarine and vessels.
Two such examples were the liberty ships Pierre Gibault which was scrapped after hitting a mine in a previously cleared area off the Greek island of Kythira in June ,  and Nathaniel Bacon which hit a minefield off Civitavecchia , Italy in December , caught fire, was beached, and broke in two.
The damage that may be caused by a mine depends on the " shock factor value", a combination of the initial strength of the explosion and of the distance between the target and the detonation.
Usually only created by contact mines, direct damage is a hole blown in the ship. Among the crew, fragmentation wounds are the most common form of damage.
Flooding typically occurs in one or two main watertight compartments, which can sink smaller ships or disable larger ones.
Roberts mine attack being a good example of a contact mine detonating amidships and underneath the ship. The bubble jet effect occurs when a mine or torpedo detonates in the water a short distance away from the targeted ship.
The explosion creates a bubble in the water, and due to the difference in pressure, the bubble will collapse from the bottom. The bubble is buoyant, and so it rises towards the surface.
If the bubble reaches the surface as it collapses, it can create a pillar of water that can go over a hundred meters into the air a "columnar plume".
If conditions are right and the bubble collapses onto the ship's hull, the damage to the ship can be extremely serious; the collapsing bubble forms a high-energy jet similar to shaped charge can break a metre-wide hole straight through the ship, flooding one or more compartments, and is capable of breaking smaller ships apart.
The crew in the areas hit by the pillar are usually killed instantly. Other damage is usually limited. The Baengnyeong incident , in which the ROKS Cheonan broke in half and sank off the coast South Korea in , was caused by the bubble jet effect, according to an international investigation.
If the mine detonates at a distance from the ship, the change in water pressure causes the ship to resonate. This is frequently the most deadly type of explosion, if it is strong enough.
Engines rip from their beds, cables from their holders, etc. A badly shaken ship usually sinks quickly, with hundreds, or even thousands [ example needed ] of small leaks all over the ship and no way to power the pumps.
The crew fare no better, as the violent shaking tosses them around. The resulting gas cavitation and shock-front -differential over the width of the human body is sufficient to stun or kill divers.
Weapons are frequently a few steps ahead of countermeasures, and mines are no exception. In this field the British, with their large seagoing navy, have had the bulk of world experience, and most anti-mine developments, such as degaussing and the double-L sweep, were British inventions.
When on operational missions, such as the recent invasion of Iraq, the US still relies on British and Canadian minesweeping services. The US has worked on some innovative mine-hunting countermeasures, such as the use of military dolphins to detect and flag mines.
However, they are of questionable effectiveness. They are small and as technology has developed they can have anechoic coatings, be non-metallic, and oddly shaped to resist detection.
Ships can be designed to be difficult for mines to detect, to avoid detonating them. This is especially true for minesweepers and mine hunters that work in minefields, where a minimal signature outweighs the need for armour and speed.
These ships have hulls of glass fibre or wood instead of steel to avoid magnetic signatures. These ships may use special propulsion systems, with low magnetic electric motors , to reduce magnetic signature, and Voith-Schneider propellers, to limit the acoustic signature.
They are built with hulls that produce a minimal pressure signature. These measures create other problems.
They are expensive, slow, and vulnerable to enemy fire. Many modern ships have a mine-warning sonar —a simple sonar looking forward and warning the crew if it detects possible mines ahead.
It is only effective when the ship is moving slowly. See also SQQ Mine-hunting sonar. A steel-hulled ship can be degaussed more correctly, de-oerstedted or depermed using a special degaussing station that contains many large coils and induces a magnetic field in the hull with alternating current to demagnetize the hull.
This is a rather problematic solution, as magnetic compasses need recalibration and all metal objects must be kept in exactly the same place.
Ships slowly regain their magnetic field as they travel through the Earth's magnetic field, so the process has to be repeated every six months.
A simpler variation of this technique, called wiping , was developed by Charles F. Goodeve which saved time and resources.
Three kinds of steel were used in shipbuilding: mild steel for bulkheads, a mixture of mild steel and high tensile steel for the hull, and special treatment steel for armor plate.
The models were placed within coils which could simulate the Earth's magnetic field at any location. The magnetic signatures were measured with degaussing coils.
The objective was to reduce the vertical component of the combination of the Earth's field and the ship's field at the usual depth of German mines.
From the measurements, coils were placed and coil currents determined to minimize the chance of detonation for any ship at any heading at any latitude.
Some ships are built with magnetic inductors , large coils placed along the ship to counter the ship's magnetic field. Using magnetic probes in strategic parts of the ship, the strength of the current in the coils can be adjusted to minimize the total magnetic field.
This is a heavy and clumsy solution, suited only to small-to-medium-sized ships. Boats typically lack the generators and space for the solution, while the amount of power needed to overcome the magnetic field of a large ship is impractical.
Active countermeasures are ways to clear a path through a minefield or remove it completely. This is one of the most important tasks of any mine warfare flotilla.
A sweep is either a contact sweep, a wire dragged through the water by one or two ships to cut the mooring wire of floating mines, or a distance sweep that mimics a ship to detonate the mines.
The sweeps are dragged by minesweepers , either purpose-built military ships or converted trawlers. Each run covers between one and two hundred meters, and the ships must move slowly in a straight line, making them vulnerable to enemy fire.
This was exploited by the Turkish army in the Battle of Gallipoli in , when mobile howitzer batteries prevented the British and French from clearing a way through minefields.
If a contact sweep hits a mine, the wire of the sweep rubs against the mooring wire until it is cut.
Sometimes "cutters", explosive devices to cut the mine's wire, are used to lessen the strain on the sweeping wire. Mines cut free are recorded and collected for research or shot with a deck gun.
Minesweepers protect themselves with an oropesa or paravane instead of a second minesweeper. These are torpedo-shaped towed bodies, similar in shape to a Harvey Torpedo, that are streamed from the sweeping vessel thus keeping the sweep at a determined depth and position.
Some large warships were routinely equipped with paravane sweeps near the bows in case they inadvertently sailed into minefields—the mine would be deflected towards the paravane by the wire instead of towards the ship by its wake.
More recently, heavy-lift helicopters have dragged minesweeping sleds, as in the Persian Gulf War. The distance sweep mimics the sound and magnetism of a ship and is pulled behind the sweeper.
It has floating coils and large underwater drums. It is the only sweep effective against bottom mines. Mk I fitted with degaussing coils to trigger magnetic mines.
Modern influence mines are designed to discriminate against false inputs and are, therefore, much harder to sweep. They often contain inherent anti-sweeping mechanisms.
For example, they may be programmed to respond to the unique noise of a particular ship-type, its associated magnetic signature and the typical pressure displacement of such a vessel.
As a result, a mine-sweeper must accurately mimic the required target signature to trigger detonation. The task is complicated by the fact that an influence mine may have one or more of a hundred different potential target signatures programmed into it.
Another anti-sweeping mechanism is a ship-counter in the mine fuze. When enabled, this allows detonation only after the mine fuze has been triggered a pre-set number of times.
To further complicate matters, influence mines may be programmed to arm themselves or disarm automatically—known as self-sterilization after a pre-set time.
During the pre-set arming delay which could last days or even weeks the mine would remain dormant and ignore any target stimulus, whether genuine or false.
When influence mines are laid in an ocean minefield, they may have various combinations of fuze settings configured. For example, some mines with the acoustic sensor enabled may become active within three hours of being laid, others with the acoustic and magnetic sensors enabled may become active after two weeks but have the ship-counter mechanism set to ignore the first two trigger events, and still others in the same minefield with the magnetic and pressure sensors enabled may not become armed until three weeks have passed.
Groups of mines within this mine-field may have different target signatures which may or may not overlap. The fuzes on influence mines allow many different permutations, which complicates the clearance process.
Mines with ship-counters, arming delays and highly specific target signatures in mine fuzes can falsely convince a belligerent that a particular area is clear of mines or has been swept effectively because a succession of vessels have already passed through safely.
As naval mines have become more sophisticated, and able to discriminate between targets, so they have become more difficult to deal with by conventional sweeping.
This has given rise to the practice of mine-hunting. Mine hunting is very different from sweeping, although some minehunters can do both tasks.
Minehunting pays little attention to the nature of the mine itself. Nor does the method change much. At the current state of the art, Minehunting remains the best way to deal with influence mines proving to be both safer and more effective than sweeping.
Specialized high-frequency sonars and high fidelity sidescaning sonar are used for mine location. It is slow, but also the most reliable way to remove mines.
Minehunting started during the Second World War, but it was only after the war that it became truly effective. Sea mammals mainly the bottlenose dolphin have been trained to hunt and mark mines, most famously by the U.
Navy Marine Mammal Program. Mine-clearance dolphins were deployed in the Persian Gulf during the Iraq War in The US Navy claims that these dolphins were effective in helping to clear more than antiship mines and underwater booby traps from Umm Qasr Port.
French naval officer Jacques Yves Cousteau 's Undersea Research Group was once involved in mine-hunting operations: They removed or detonated a variety of German mines, but one particularly defusion-resistant batch—equipped with acutely sensitive pressure, magnetic, and acoustic sensors and wired together so that one explosion would trigger the rest—was simply left undisturbed for years until corrosion would hopefully disable the mines.
A more drastic method is simply to run a ship through the minefield, letting other ships safely follow the same path.
However, as mine warfare became more developed this method became uneconomical. Left with a surfeit of idle ships due to the Allied blockade , the Kriegsmarine introduced a ship known as Sperrbrecher "block breaker".
Typically an old cargo ship, loaded with cargo that made her less vulnerable to sinking wood for example , the Sperrbrecher was run ahead of the ship to be protected, detonating any mines that might be in their path.
The use of Sperrbrecher obviated the need to continuous and painstaking sweeping, but the cost was high. Over half the or so ships used as Sperrbrecher were sunk during the war.
Alternatively, a shallow draught vessel can be steamed through the minefield at high speed to generate a pressure wave sufficient to trigger mines, with the minesweeper moving fast enough to be sufficiently clear of the pressure wave so that triggered mines do not destroy the ship itself.
These techniques are the only publicly known to be employed way to sweep pressure mines. The technique can be simply countered by use of a ship-counter, set to allow a certain number of passes before the mine is actually triggered.
Modern doctrine calls for ground mines to be hunted rather than swept. A new system is being introduced for sweeping pressure mines, however counters are going to remain a problem.
An updated form of this method is the use of small unmanned ROVs such as the Seehund drone that simulate the acoustic and magnetic signatures of larger ships and are built to survive exploding mines.
Repeated sweeps would be required in case one or more of the mines had its "ship counter" facility enabled i. Today, most U.
MK65 Quickstrike The Quickstrike  is a family of shallow-water aircraft-laid mines used by the United States, primarily against surface craft.
These latter three mines are actually a single type of electronic fuze fitted to Mk82 , Mk83 and Mk84 air-dropped bombs. Because this latter type of Quickstrike fuze only takes up a small amount of storage space compared to a dedicated sea mine, the air-dropped bomb casings have dual purpose i.
According to a statement made to the UK Parliament in . Notwithstanding this, the United Kingdom retains the capability to lay mines and continues research into mine exploitation.
Practice mines, used for exercises, continue to be laid in order to retain the necessary skills. However, a British company BAE Systems does manufacture the Stonefish influence mine for export to friendly countries such as Australia, which has both war stock and training versions of Stonefish,  [ unreliable source?
Stonefish can be deployed by fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, surface vessels and submarines. An optional kit is available to allow Stonefish to be air-dropped, comprising an aerodynamic tail-fin section and parachute pack to retard the weapon's descent.
The operating depth of Stonefish ranges between 30 and metres. The mine weighs kilograms and contains a kilogram aluminised PBX explosive warhead.
Mine warfare remains the most cost-effective of asymmetrical naval warfare. Mines are relatively cheap and being small allows them to be easily deployed.
Indeed, with some kinds of mines, trucks and rafts will suffice.Die Seeminen waren gefährlich. Die großen Metallkörper - gefüllt mit Sprengstoff - lagen am Grund der Ostsee. Seit war der Standort der. Besteht jede Seemine oder Seeminenattrappe aus diesem Gemisch, entsprechend der Erfindung, ist die Lagerung und der Trans port von Minen leichter. Nur. Akkusativ: Einzahl die Seemine; Mehrzahl die Seeminen. Übersetzungen. Englisch: 1) naval mine; Esperanto: 1) marmino. Praktische Beispielsätze. Seeminen seien die "bevorzugte Waffe einer schwachen Seemacht gegen eine starke Seemacht", definiert die "Encyclopaedia Britannica" jene. By the beginning Dr. House Episodenguide World War II, most nations had Zdf Heute mines that could be dropped from aircraft, some of which floated on the surface, making it possible to Adam Sucht Eva 2019 Videos them üblichen Verdächtigen enemy harbours. Archived from the original on 2 April Asiapac Books. Torpedo mine : the torpedo mine is a self-propelled variety, able to lie Seemine wait for a target and then Seemine it e. Notwithstanding this, the United Kingdom retains the capability to lay mines and continues research into mine exploitation. Ab führte die Royal Navy den geschlossenen Voreilanker ein, der einfacher aufgebaut und zuverlässiger ist. Namensräume Seite Diskussion. The mechanism had an adjustable sensitivity, calibrated in milligauss.